Boas, Franz, 1858-1942

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Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Boas-Rukeyser Collection, 1869-1940, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Field notebooks and anthropometric data, ca. 1883-1912, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Franz Boas Papers, 1862-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Boas Family Papers, 1862-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Born in Minden, Germany, on July 8, 1858, the anthropologist Franz Boas was the son of the merchant Meier Boas and his wife, Sophie Meyer. Raised in the radical and tradition of German Judaism, Franz's youth was steeped in politically liberal beliefs and a largely secular outlook that he carried with him from university through his emigration to the United States.

At the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn, Boas studied physics and geography before completing a doctorate in physical geography at Kiel in 1881. Intending on testing then-current theories of environmental determinism, he signed on to an anthropological expedition to Baffin Island in 1883-1884, expecting that he would document the close adaptative fit of Central Eskimo cultures to their extreme climate. His experiences in the arctic, however, led him to the contrary conclusion: that social traditions, not environmental, exerted a dominant influence over human societies, and from this point onward, he was led to pursue the cultural over than physical dimensions of humanity.

Although he returned to Berlin after the expedition, Boas emigrated to the United States in 1885 to assume an editorial position with the journal Science, hoping to use it as a stepping-stone to an academic appointment. In 1886, he embarked upon a second major field excursion into what would become his most famous ethnographic project, working among the Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw) Indians of the Northwest Coast, after which he secured his first academic position in 1889, at Clark University in Worcester, Mass. After three years at Clark and a failed appointment at the Field Museum in Chicago in 1892 (during which he played a part in organizing the anthropological exhibits for the Columbian World's Fair), Boas moved to New York City.

The restless activity of Boas's early years slowed in New York. Hired by the American Museum of Natural History (1895-1905), which became the recipient of the amazingly rich anthropological collections he accumulated on the Northwest Coast, Boas began to teach classes at Columbia University in 1896, where three years later he was appointed Professor of Anthropology. For the next 37 years, Boas ruled the anthropological roost at Columbia, accruing unprecedented power in his discipline, wielding grants, recommendations, and appointments with remarkable dexterity, and collecting about him a remarkable group of younger scholars as students and colleagues.

Distancing himself from some of the main currents of contemporary anthropological thought in the United States, and particularly from the evolutionist assumptions that riddled the discipline, Boas championed an anthropology that viewed human cultures as shaped more by historical "tradition" than biological propensity. Claiming to resist any overarching, synthetic theories of human relations, and particularly evolutionary theories of sociocultural development, Boas laid the theoretical groundwork for what became modern cultural relativism. In the process, he helped to clarify the demarcation between the concepts of culture and race and its expression in the divergence of the four fields in anthropology -- linguistics, ethnography, physical anthropology, and archaeology.

Boas's relatively few forays into physical anthropology included a pioneering anthropometric study in 1910-1911, demonstrating that the alleged mental and physical inferiority of immigrants disappeared statistically by the second generation. Opposed to immigration quotas and disdainful of the claims to science used to justify them, Boas was a consistent, strident opponent of racial determinism in intellect or behavior. A committed, politically active Socialist, he was frequently an outspoken critic of American policy. During the First World War, he spoke out against the treatment of German Americans and "enemy aliens" -- to the point of putting himself at risk -- and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany proved an even greater crusade. Despite his age, Boas took an active role in the anti-fascist struggle in the United States and was involved with numerous committees to assist refugee scholars. He was equally ardent in his efforts to criticize racial and ethnic bigotry in the United States.

As a mentor, Boas had a reputation of being directive, at times overbearing, and at the same time of doing too little to prepare his students for the rigors of fieldwork. The extraordinary number of students coming out of Columbia under his care, however, has arguably done as much to extend the Boasian approach than Boas's own writing. Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, Frank Speck, Edward Sapir, Zora Neale Hurston, Ella Deloria, Melville Herskovits, Leslie Spier, Paul Radin, and Ashley Montagu are all students of Boas. Many continued in the same intellectual stream, some diverged, yet all bore traces of Boas's influence. He left a mark as well on the institutions of the discipline, as one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association and of the International Journal of American Linguistics .

From the guide to the Franz Boas Professional Papers, Circa 1860-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Muriel Rukeyser Papers, 1844-1986, (bulk 1930-1979) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Eastman mss., 1892-1968 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (H), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Rukeyser, Muriel, 1913-1980. Muriel Rukeyser papers, 1844-1986 (bulk 1930-1979). Library of Congress
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Chinook grammar notebook [microform]. Oregon State University Libraries
referencedIn Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949 Houghton Library
referencedIn Frank G. Speck papers, 1903-1950 American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Boas, Franziska, 1902-1988. Reminiscences of Franziska Boas : oral history, 1972. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn George G. Heye autograph collection, 1886-1928 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Boas-Rukeyser Collection, 1869-1940 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Starr, Frederick, 1858-1933. Papers, 1868-1935 (inclusive), 1892-1923 (bulk). University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence, 1862-1942. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Leslie A. White Papers, 1921-1974 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn George G. Heye autograph collection, 1886-1928 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Frans M. Olbrechts papers, ca. 1910-1930, on the Iroquois Indians, Circa 1910-1930 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn John Alden Mason papers, 1911-1967 American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Anthropometric data, 1891-1942. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (L), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Field notebooks and physical anthropological data, 1889-1897, n.d. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Hoebel, E. Adamson (Edward Adamson), 1906-. Papers, 1925-1993. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963. Melville Herskovits Papers, 1906-1963. Northwestern University
creatorOf Franz Boas Professional Papers, Circa 1860-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson), 1904-1971. Ralph Bunche papers, 1922-1988. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Cattell, James McKeen, 1860-1944. James McKeen Cattell papers, 1835-1948 (bulk 1896-1948). Library of Congress
referencedIn Bergmann, M. (Max), 1886-1944. Papers, [ca. 1930]-1945. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence to Daniel Garrison Brinton, 1894-1898. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Council for Research in the Humanities. Council for Research in the Humanities Records, 1926-1968 [Bulk dates: 1926-1936; 1966-1968]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1903-1931 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn Hocking, William Ernest, 1873-1966. William Ernest Hocking Papers, 1860-1979 Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Nootka ethnographic and linguistic materials, [ca. 1900-1920]. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Baffin Land; geographical results of an exploratory journey made in the years 1883 and 1884. National Geographic Society Library
creatorOf Bray, William C. (William Crowell), 1879-1946. William C. Bray papers, 1890-1945. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (R), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Emergency Society for German & Austrian Science and Art. Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1925. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn John Alden Mason papers, 1904-1967 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (S), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William Shedrick Willis papers, [ca. 1940-1983], Circa 1940-1983 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Frank Manny papers, 1890-1955 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Willis, William Shedrick, 1921-1983. Papers, [ca. 1940-1983]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies. Correspondence, 1926-1927. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Pease, Arthur Stanley, 1881-1964. Arthur Stanley Pease correspondence and compositions, 1870-1963 Houghton Library
referencedIn Center, Ellen, d. 1959. Tillamook Indians / Ellen Center correspondence file, 1930-1955 Boise State University, Albertsons Library
referencedIn Records of the Edwin Berry Burgum Academic Freedom Case., 1934-1961 New York University. Archives
referencedIn Lotte Urbach Collection, 1901-1954 Leo Baeck Institute Archives
referencedIn W J McGee Papers, 1880-1916, (bulk 1885-1905) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Vertebrate Paleontology. General correspondence files, [ca. 1887]-1966. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Department of Anthropology Records, 1930-1985. Columbia University. University Archives. Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn IU Folklore Institute, 1987 Indiana University, Bloomington. Center for the Study of History and Memory
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975. Linguistic material for Nass River Tsimshian [microform], 1893-1940. Washington Library Network
referencedIn Immigration Restriction League (U.S.) records, 1893-1921 Houghton Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1939. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Nootka ethnographic and linguistic materials, [ca. 1900-1920], Circa 1900-1920 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Papers. Matlazinca linguistics ... [microform], 1904-1940. Washington Library Network
creatorOf Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1902-1934 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
referencedIn James McKeen Cattell Papers, 1835-1948, (bulk 1896-1948) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (W-Z), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Jochelson, Waldemar, 1855-1937. Collection, 1899-1979 (bulk 1899-1942). American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1903). Records, 1897-1905. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Olbrechts, Frans M., 1899-1958. Papers, ca. 1910-1930, on the Iroquois Indians. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Correspondence with Van Wyck Brooks, 1938-1940. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Goldenweiser, Alexander, 1880-1940. Correspondence with Franz Boas, 1907-1927 [microform]. Iowa State University, Parks Library
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Columbia University. University Archives. Columbiana Manuscripts, 1572-1986 [Bulk Dates: 1850-1920]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Franz Boas Papers: Inventory (I-K), 1862-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society [ACLS Collection], 1853, 1882-1959 American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Boas, Franz, 1858-1942. Dance and music in the life of the Northwest Coast Indians of North America, by Franz Boas. [19] p. New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
referencedIn Moe, Henry Allen, 1894-1975. Papers, [ca. 1920]-1975. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Manny, Frank Addison, 1868-1954. Frank Addison Manny papers, 1890-1955. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960. A.L. Kroeber papers, 1869-1972. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. Culin Archival Collection Series 7: Games 1871-1927. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews, 1874-1941. Papers, [ca. 1882]-1978. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Boas, Ernst Philip, Dr. 1891-1955. Reprints of Ernst Boas articles, 1900-1951. New York Academy of Medicine
creatorOf Smith, Erminnie Adele Platt, 1836-1886. [Peabody Museum director records, Frederic W. Putnam (1839-1915), 1870-1923]. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
creatorOf American Museum of Natural History. Expedition to China (1901-1904). Correspondence, 1900-1904, (bulk 1901-1904). American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948. Ruth Fulton Benedict papers, 1905-1948. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Gregory, William K. (William King), 1876-1970. Papers, 1889-1948 (bulk 1906-1948). American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Hand, Learned. Learned Hand papers. 1840-1961. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
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creatorOf United States Federal Bureau of Investigation files, 1939-1950, 1939-1950 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn Boas-Rukeyser Collection, 1869-1940. American Philosophical Society Library
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referencedIn Margaret Mead Papers and the South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996, (bulk 1911-1978) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf American Council of Learned Societies correspondence, 1926-1927, 1926-1927 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs. Carnegie Council on Ethics & International Affairs records, 1914-1996. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Jones, William, 1871-1909. Ojibwa ethnographic and linguistic field notes, 1903-1905. American Philosophical Society Library
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referencedIn Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers, 1892-1981 American Philosophical Society
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Place Name Admin Code Country
New York NY US
Baffin Island 14 CA
Minden 07 DE
New York NY US
Subject
Indians of North America--Northwest, Pacific--Folklore
Jewish children--Anthropometry
Kwakiutl language
Native American lore & legends
Geology--Canada
Race
Indians of North America--Northwest Coast
African Americans--Anthropometry
Anthropology--Research--United States
Anthropological linguistics--America
Anthropometry--Research
Indians of North America--Ethnology
Eskimos
Indians of North America--Anthropometry
Indigenous peoples--British Columbia
Science
Refugees, Political
Communists--United States
Science--Societies, etc
Communist parties--United States
Indians of North America--Northwest Territories--Languages
Authors and publishers
Ethnology--North America
Linguistics--United States
Anthropometry--Field work
Anthropology
Political refugees
Race relations
Italians--Anthropometry
Shoshoni language--Glossaries, vocabularies, etc
Communism and social sciences--United States
Anthropology--United States--History
Chinook language--Grammar
Social sciences
Anthropology--Latin America
Socialists
Communism and social sciences
Eskimos--Canada
Inuit
Scientists, Refugee
Ethnology
Arctic Indians
Physical anthropology--Research
Scientists--United States
Indians of North America--British Columbia
German Americans
Czechs--Anthropometry
Chemistry--United States
Eskimos--Baffin Island (N.W.T.)
Northwest Coast Indians
Linguistics--Study and teaching
Social inequality
Tlingit Indians
Japanese--Anthropometry
Scientific expeditions
Physical anthropology--Field work
Anthropology--United States
Indians of Mexico--Languages
Geography--Canada
Indigenous peoples--Nunavut--Baffin Island
Socialists--United States
Jewish scientists
Scientific expeditions--Arctic regions
Academic freedom
Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform
Indians of North America--Nunavut
Language
Indians of North America--Languages
Myth
Kwakiutl Indians
Linguistics
Biology, genetics, eugenics
Communist parties
Anthropology--Study and teaching
Gender
Anthropology--Research
Anthropology, ethnography, fieldwork
Biochemistry--United States
Race, race relations, racism
Occupation
Anthropologists
Anthropologists--United States
College teachers
Curators
Ethnologists
Indians of North America
Linguists
Biochemists--United States
Museum curators
Educators
Function

Person

Birth 1858-07-09

Death 1942-12-21

Americans

English,

Spanish; Castilian,

German

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6039fsz

Ark ID: w6039fsz

SNAC ID: 84246539