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Biographical History

The Independent was a New York weekly newspaper founded in 1848 by Henry Chandler Bowen. The Congregationalist journal, which was published until 1921, included social topics, primarily opposition to slavery and religious articles, but after the Civil War included literary submissions. Editors included, among others, Henry Ward Beecher, Theodore Tilton, Kinsley Twining, Hamilton Holt, William Hayes Ward, and his sister, Susan Hayes Ward.

William Hayes Ward (1835-1916) was born in Abingdon, Massachusetts, on June 25, 1835. He graduated with distinction from Amherst College in 1856 and from Andover Theological seminary in 1859. He married Ellen Maria Dickinson in 1859. Dr. Ward served as a professor of Latin at Ripon College in Wisconsin and was a prominent orientalist and biblical scholar in his later years. In 1868 he left Ripon College to join the editorial staff of The Independent. In 1884, he led an expedition to Babylonia to examine archeological sites, and became president of the American Oriental Society, a position held twice, from 1890-1894 and 1909-1910. He specialized in studying designs of Babylonian and Assyrian seal cylinders, which were used in ancient record-keeping.

Showing a lifelong concern for social issues in the newspaper and in private life, William Hayes Ward upheld African-American rights and opened the first conference held by the NAACP in 1909 in New York City. He was editor-in-chief of The Independent from 1896-1913 and is known for supporting poet Sidney Lanier, whose work was frequently published in the paper, and about whom Dr. Ward wrote a biographical memoir.

Horace Howard Furness, Sr., 1833-1912, was an important American Shakespeare scholar. He was known for his editing of Shakespeare's plays, which contained numerous editions of plays as well as criticism. His son, Horace Howard Furness, Jr., 1865-1930, was a partner and successor of his father's work and edited his letters. Samuel Chew was a renowned literary critic in the early twentieth century.

From the finding aid for Collection of The Independent Correspondence and Other Materials 1680-1936 ()

Rochambeau landed at Newport, Rhode Island, on July 10, but was held there inactive for a year, owing to his reluctance to abandon the French fleet blockaded by the British in Narragansett Bay. At last, in July 1781, Rochambeau's force finally left Rhode Island, marching across Connecticut to join Washington on the Hudson River at Dobbs Ferry, New York. There then followed the celebrated march of the combined forces and the siege of Yorktown. On September 22, they combined with the Marquis de Lafayette's troops and forced Lord Cornwallis to surrender on October 19.

From the finding aid for Letter: Arrival of Rochambeau's army at Newport, RI, 1780 ()

The Loudoun County Military Records are extracts from rosters which list military personnel and officers enrolled in various units from the Revolutionary War to the year 1861. The lists in this collection are both photocopied and handwritten.

From the finding aid for Loudoun County Military Records ca. 1779-1861 ()

None available.

From the finding aid for Brig Othello's People 1772 August ()

None available.

From the finding aid for Sermon 1798 January 7 ()

None available.

From the finding aid for Siege of York and Gloucester, Virginia 1781 September 15 to October 17 ()

Melchoir Mason Long (1838-1864), a son of Burgess Ball Long (1796-1873) and Sarah Ann Thompson (d. 1841) was born in Union County, KY and died during the Battle of Cedar Creek 19 October 1864. Little is known of his childhood, education or early adulthood. According to available records on the Civil War, Long enlisted, 27 May 1861, at Manassas, serving first as a Private before appointment as Sergeant, 27 August 1861, in Company F (Williams Rifles), 1st Virginia Infantry. Subsequently he is listed as Sergeant, Company C (Beauregard Rifles), 1st Virginia Artillery and, 22 January 1862, in Command as Captain of Infantry. By 30 April1864 he is listed as a 1st Lieutenant, Confederate Engineers. Hewas killed at Cedar Creek, 19 October 1864, while acting as an aide de campe to Brigadier General Gabriel Colvin Wharton (1824-1906) an 1847 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington. Initially buried in the Presbyterian Church Cemetery, Strasburg, VA, Long's remains were removed by his sisters, Virginia Mason Long (1834-1925) and Eleanor Long (1836-1900) and reinterred, 12 August 1893, in the Union Cemetery, Leesburg, VA, next to his father, Colonel Burgess Ball Long. Long's Mother, Sarah Ann Thompson, died and was buried in Union County, KY as was a younger brother William Allen Thompson Long (1840- ca. 1842). Virginia and Eleanor Long are interred in Union Cemetery, Leesburg, VA.

From the finding aid for Melchoir M. Long Obituary and Notes 1864; 1893 ()

Site located in area near what was an 18th-c. waterfront tavern and is now known as the Archer Cottage.

From the finding aid for Archer House Drawing 1908 ()

Originally founded as a Mother's Club for household advice in 1909, the Purcellville Woman's Club's earliest recorded meetings date from 1922. The Club's motto states: "United we stand for God and humanity." While it maintained its independence from the National Women's Club Federation, the Purcellville Woman's Club briefly became a member of the Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs in 1922, withdrawing between 1926 and 1928. In her historical sketch of the organization, Mildred Pattullo (b. 1910) notes that while the Club was "in and out several times" of the National and Virginia Women's Club Federations, its members decided that it should remain under local management. Since its inception, the Purcellville Woman's Club has supported local activities and initiatives including recreational sites, anti-littering campaigns, and fundraisers such as bake sales and fashion shows. In 1989, the Club began sponsoring a $500 scholarship, which is offered each year to a qualified member of the Loudoun Valley High School Keyettes Club. This annual scholarship fund is a project that espouses the Club's ideals of volunteerism and service. As of 2009, the Purcellville Woman's Club remains active, frequently participating in holiday events to assist the elderly and other members of the community.

From the finding aid for Purcellville Woman's Club 1922-1960 ()

Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Loudoun County was a rural area comprised mostly of farming communities. During this time period, children completed chores on their farms, attended one-room schoolhouses, and participated in activities such as the 4-H Club and Girl Scouts of America.

The Student Oral History Collection is comprised of a series of interviews conducted by local middle schoolers during 1981 with Loudoun residents to better understand day-to-day lifestyles of the early twentieth century.

From the finding aid for Student Oral History Collection 1981 ()

Non available.

From the finding aid for Shoemaker's Account Book 1758-1770 ()

The ancestry of three brothers, John (23 Mar 1728-?), Jonathan (4 May 1729-May 1791), and George Nixon (25 Feb 1730-1797?), is traced to William Nykson (n.d.) who became a freeman of York, England, in 1416. A man designated a "freeman" was allowed to trade or become a master craftsman. During the 17th century a descendent of Nykson's, James Nixon (21 Jan 1605-11 Nov 1694), moved to Ireland with his family and bought property in Killamagh, County Mayo, in 1687. He continued to acquire land, including some in Connaugh province. His descendents resided in the old homestead at Inniskillen, where John, Jonathon, and George were born. The three brothers immigrated to America in 1758, settling in Virginia. Other members of the family line settled in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

From the finding aid for Nixon Family Tree 1416-1797 ()

None available.

From the finding aid for Servant Indentures 1750-1754 ()

Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties was an organization formed to oppose integration after the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. It was established in Farmville, Virginia, and headed by Robert (R.B.) Crawford (app.1911-1973), who had been on the Prince Edward County School Board for 15 years. The Defenders stated their goals as preservation of segregation without violence or lawlessness. During a 1956 interview, Crawford claimed the Defenders had approximately 10,000 members across Virginia.

It was a powerful organization throughout the mid and late 1950s, but began to fade away during the early 1960s. The Virginia Conservative Party, formed in opposition to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, is widely believed to be an offshoot of the Defenders.

From the finding aid for Loudoun Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties Records 1956-1960 ()

None available.

From the finding aid for Post Office Account Book 1810 ()

On March 10, 1916, the General Assembly of Virginia passed Chapter 146, an act foreshadowing the Eighteenth Amendment of 1920. In this act the General Assembly defined ardent spirits and went on to prohibit their manufacture, sale, transportation for sale, and general distribution. It further regulated the sale of alcohol for medicinal purposes by requiring those businesses who were allowed, by court license, to sell alcohol to file a monthly report, or inventory, of their alcohol on hand. This act was not written to prevent manufacture for consumption; it was intended to stimulate Virginia's temperance movement.

Chapter 146 was strengthened on March 19, 1918 with the passage of Chapter 388, which required that common carriers of ardent spirits be required to keep their records of quantities transported in an alphabetical file box. This was to include affidavits attesting to whom the alcohol was shipped, the amount and kind received, the date of delivery and the cosignee. Both of these acts were repealed, however, with the passage of Chapter 403, section 504 (March 20, 1920), which required that the clerk of the circuit court of each county keep these affidavits in an alphabetically arranged book; therefore relieving the transportation companies of the duty.

From the finding aid for Affidavits for Ardent Spirits Collection 1916-1917 ()

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